Carrie A. Masiello

Associate Professor

portrait of Dr. Carrie A. Masiello
  • B.A. physics and mathematics (1991) Earlham College
  • M.S. Environmental Science (1993) University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  • Ph.D. Earth System Science (1999) University of California, Irvine
  • carbon cycling, carbon sequestration, climate change, black carbon, terrestrial-river-ocean biosphere interactions

E-mail: masiello@rice.edu
Phone: (713) 348-5234
Office: 206 Keith-Wiess Geology Labs
Web Address:
CV
Rice Isotope Biogeochemistry Group
Rice Biochar C Sequestration Group
 

Research Statement

I study the Earth's carbon cycle on timescales from 5 years to 100,000 years. My main interests are in
        1. fundamental mechanisms of the carbon cycle and
        2. how humans are altering these mechanisms through combustion of fossil fuel, land use change, and erosion.

My research uses natural radiocarbon (14C, half-life 5730 years) coupled with organic geochemical tools like wet chemical extractions, 13C NMR, physical separations, chromatographic and spectroscopic studies to address problems related to carbon and climate. By combining geochemical tools with a chronometer (14C) I can answer questions about both mechanisms and timescales of carbon movement between reservoirs. I am particularly interested in problems related to the movement of carbon between fast and intermediate-cycling carbon pools, including the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere, rivers, and ocean sediments. New research in my lab includes the development of organic carbon oxidation state (Cox) as a tracer of Earth system processes.

Selected Publications

Articles

Masiello, C.A. "Quick burial at sea." Nature, 450 (2007): 360-361.

Schmidt, M.W.I., and C.A. Masiello "Inter-disciplinary intercomparison of black carbon analysis in soil and sediment." EOS: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 88 (2007): 344.

Refereed Articles

Hockaday, W.C., C.A. Masiello, R.J. Smernik, J.A. Baldock, J.T. Randerson, O.A. Chadwick, J.W. Harden "The measurement of soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance." Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences (2008).(Submitted)

Masiello, C.A., M.E. Gallagher, J.T. Randerson, R.M. Deco, O.A. Chadwick "Evaluating Two Experimental Approaches for Measuring Ecosystem Carbon Oxidation State and Oxidative Ratio ." Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 113 (2008): G03010, doi:10.1029/2007JG000534.

Zeng, FW, C.A. Masiello. "CO2 evasion from two subtropical rivers in North America." Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences (2008).(Submitted)

Czimczik, C. and Masiello, C.A. "Controls on black carbon storage in soils." Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB3005 (2007): doi: 10.1029/2006GB002798.

Hammes, K., and 42 others including C.A. Masiello "Comparative analyses of black carbon reference materials from soil, water, sediment and atmosphere and environmental implications." Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21 (2007): GB3016, doi:10.1029/2006GB002914.

J.T. Randerson, Masiello, C.A.,Still, C.J., Rahn, T., Field, C.B. "Is the oxidative ratio of the terrestrial biosphere changing? Implications for trends in atmospheric O2." Global Change Biology, 12 (2006): 260-271.

Treseder, K.K; Torn, M.S., Masiello, C.A. "An ecosystem-scale radiocarbon tracer to test use of litter carbon by ectomycorrhizal fungi." Soil Biology and Biochemistry (2006): 1077-1082.

Mayorga, E., Aufdenkampe, A.K., Masiello, C.A., Krusche, A.V., Hedges, J.I., Quay, P.D., Richey, J.E., Brown, T.A. "Respiration of contemporary organic matter drives outgassing of CO2 from Amazonian rivers." Nature, 436 (2005): 538-540.

Basile, I., Amundson, R., Stone, W., Masiello, C.A., Bottero, J.-Y., Colin, F., Masin, F., Borschneck, D., Meunier, J.-D. "Mineralogical control of organic carbon dynamics in an allophanic soil (La Reunion)." European Journal of Soil Science, 56 (2005): 689-703.

K.K. Treseder, C.A. Masiello, J.L. Lansing "Species-specific measurements of ectomycorrhizal turnover under N-fertilization: combining isotopic and genetic approaches." Oecologia, 138 (2004): 419-425.

A.F. Dickens, Y. Gelinas, C.A. Masiello, S. Wakeham, J.I. Hedges "Reburial of fossil organic carbon in marine sediments." Nature, 427 (2004): 336-339.

Masiello, C.A., "New directions in black carbon organic geochemistry." Marine Chemistry, 92 (2004): 201-213.

Masiello, C.A., O.A. Chadwick, J. Southon, M.S. Torn, J.W. Harden "Mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils." Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18 (2004): doi: 10.1029/2004GB002219.

S.G. Wakeham, J. Forrest, C.A. Masiello, Y. Gelinas, C.R. Alexander, P.R. Leavitt "Hydrocarbons in Lake Washington sediments. A 25-year restrospective in an urban lake." Environmental Science and Technology, 38 (2004): 431-439.

J.A. Baldock, C.A. Masiello, Y. Gelinas, J.I. Hedges "Cycling and composition of organic matter in terrestrial and marine systems." Marine Chemistry, 92 (2004): 39-64.

Masiello, C.A. and Druffel, E.R.M. "Organic and black carbon C-13 and C-14 through the Santa Monica Basin sediment oxic-anoxic transition ." Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (2003): Art. No. 1185.

Masiello, C.A., Druffel, E.R.M, and Currie, L.A. "Radiocarbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and ocean sediments." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66 (2002): 1025-1036.

Currie, LA, and others including Masiello, C.A. "A critical evaluation of interlaboratory data on total, elemental, and isotopic carbon in the carbonaceous particle reference material, NIST SRM 1649a." Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 107 (2002): 279-298.

Masiello, C.A. and Druffel, E.R.M. "Carbon isotope geochemistry of the Santa Clara River." Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15 (2001): 407-416.

Masiello, C.A., Druffel, E.R.M., and Bauer, J.E. "Physical controls on dissolved inorganic radiocarbon variability in the California Current." Deep Sea Research II, 45 (1998): 617-642.

Masiello, C.A., Druffel, E.R.M., and Bauer, J.E. "Distributions of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon and radiocarbon in the eastern North Pacific continental margin." Deep Sea Research II, 45 (1998): 689-713.

Masiello, C.A. and Druffel, E.R.M. "Black carbon in deep-sea sediments." Science, 280 (1998): 1911-1913.

Presentations

seminar speaker. "Measuring the carbon oxidation state of the Earth System." Texas A&M Galveston. (May 2, 2006)

"Measuring the oxidation state of organic carbon in the Earth System." University of Texas, Marine Sciences Institute. (November 15, 2004)

"Measuring the Carbon Oxidation State of the Earth System (and KBS)." Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners, MI. (April 29, 2006)

"Rejunvenation and aging of carbon in rivers: Sources, exports, and interactions among fractions in the Amazon and other systems." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 12-17, 2007) With Mayorga, E., Aufdenkampe, A.K., Masiello, C.A., Krusche, A.V., Quay, P.D., Richey, J.E., Seitzinger, S.

"Why are there no black soils in the boreal regions." Charcoal to Black carbon: defining common issues of quantification and interpretation in archaeological, palaeoenvironmental and carbon cycle research, University of St. Andrews, Edinburgh. (August 2005) With Czimczik, C.I.

"Black carbon inventories, fluxes, and mechanisms: where are we?." Joint Meeting: Geological Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Sciences Society of America, Houston, TX. (October 2008)

"Greenhouse Gases and the Carbon Cycle." MIT Enterprise Forum of Texas, . (Sept 20, 2006)

"Introduction to the Carbon Cycle." Rice-HISD Elementary Model Science Lab program, Sanchez Elementary School. (Dec 6, 2006)

"Fate of fossil fuel CO2 and Potential for biospheric sequestration." Rice University/Shell Internal Symposium, Rice University. (Oct 6, 2006)

"Towards soil and sediment inventories of black carbon." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 15, 2008)

"Measuring the Oxidation State of Organic Carbon in the Earth System." Institutio Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas, Venezuela. (September 28, 2004)

symposium organizer. "How to Build a Black Soil." Rice University/TAMU-Galveston joint BC-nanocarbon symposium, Rice University. (August 25, 2006) With Claudia Czimczik.

"Biogeochemistry of charcoal in the environment: carbon cycle roles and carbon sequestration options." Rice University Dean of Natural Sciences Lecture Series, Rice University. (March 19, 2008)

"The natural range in oxidative ratio of environmental organic matter." American Chemical Society national meeting, San Diego. (March 17, 2005) With J.A. Baldock, J.T. Randerson, O.A. Chadwick, R.J. Smernik, and R.M. Deco, J.W. Harden, Michelle C. Mack.

session chair

"Building a Black Soil." European Geoscience Union, Vienna, Austria. (April 25, 2005) With C. Czimczik.

"Oxidation state of natural organic materials as an organic geochemical tracer: Prospects for measurement via 13C NMR." ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA. (March 2004) With Baldock, J.A., Smernik, R., Chadwick, O.A., Randerson, J.T.

"Comparative analyses of reference materials for organic geochemical studies of black carbon." European Geoscience Union, Vienna. (April 2005) With MWI Schmidt, JO Skjemstad, W Ball, L Currie, DM Smith, the Ring Team.

session chair

"Is the oxidative ratio of the terrestrial biosphere changing? Implications for trends in atmospheric O2." Ecological Society of America, . (April, 2004) With Still, C.J., Rahn, T., Field, C.B. , Randerson, J.T.

"Nitrogen Fertilization of Corn: Plant Biochemistry Effects & Carbon Cycle Implications." Spring American Geophysical Union Meeting, . (May 2008) With M.E. Gallagher, Hockaday, W.C., Masiello, C.A., McSwiney, C.P., Robertson, G.P., Baldock, J.A.

"Estimating elemental composition and oxidation state of natural organic matter using 13C NMR." Australian Organic Geochemistry/International Humic Substances Society joint meeting, Sydney, Australia. (February 2004) With Deco, R.M., Randerson, J.T., Chadwick, O.A., Baldock, J.A.

"New Directions in Black Carbon Organic Geochemistry." Friday Harbor Symposium in honor of John Hedges: New Directions in Marine Biogeochemistry, . (August 2003)

"Impact of urbanization on CO2 fluxes and sources from Houston-area watersheds." Joint Meeting: Geological Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Sciences Society of America, Houston, TX. (October 2008) With Fanwei Zeng.

"Soil organic radiocarbon and mineralogy at two coastal California sites." Fall AGU, . (2001) With Chadwick, O.A., and Torn, M.

"14C and 13C Constraints on CO2 Cycling in Pristine and Deforested Lowland Amazon Rivers." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA. (Fall 2004) With E. Mayorga, A.K. Aufdenkampe, A.V. Krusche, P.D. Quay, J.E. Richey.

"Changes in plant biochemistry under varying nitrogen fertilization: implications for the soil carbon pools." Joint Meeting: Geological Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Crop Sciences Society of America, Houston, TX. (October 2008) With Morgan E. Gallagher, William C. Hockaday, Claire P. McSwiney, G. Philip Robertson, Jeffrey A. Baldock.

"Organic Carbon Oxidative State (Cox) and Oxidative Ratio (OR): Two New Parameters for Carbon Cycle Studies." Kearney Foundation Soil Carbon Storage Workshop, Davis, CA . (September 2003) With Deco, R.M., Randerson, J.T., Baldock, J.A., and Chadwick, O.A.

"Plant Biochemical Shifts Under Varying Nitrogen Conditions: Implications for the Carbon Cycle." USDA, Temple, TX. (spring 2008) With ME Gallagher, WC Hockaday, CA Masiello, CP McSwiney, GP Robertson, and JA Baldock.

"Recycled Graphitic Carbon: Presence and Distribution off the Washington Coast." INQUA, . (July 2003) With Angela F. Dickens, Yves Gelinas, John I. Hedges.

"Isotopic and genetic assessments of ectomycorrhizal turnover under N-fertilization." Ecolog.Soc. Am, . (Spring Meeting, 2001) With Treseder, K.K., Lansing, J., Allen M.F.

"Controls on the Origin and Cycling of Riverine Dissolved Inorganic Carbon in the Brazos River, Texas." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 15, 2008) With Zeng, F; Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C.

"DIC cycling from 14C And 13C isotopes in mountain and lowland rivers in the Amazon Basin." ASLO, Victoria, Canada. (2002) With Mayorga, E., Aufdenkampe, A.K., Quay, P.D., Hedges, J.I., Richey, J.E., Krusche, A.V., Llerena, C.A., Forsberg, B.R., Quintanilla, J.

"Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Washington sediments: A 25-year retrospective." Spring AGU. (2001) With Wakeham, S., J. Forrest, A. Biersmith, Y. Gelinas, C. Alexander.

"Mineralogy and carbon storage across a soil chronosequence." Gordon Research Conference on Organic Geochemistry, Plymouth, New Hampshire. (2000) With M.W.I. Schmidt, W.P. Ball, L.A. Currie, J.O. Skjemstad, D.M. Smith.

"The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization of a Corn Ecosystem's Oxidative Ratio and Its Carbon Cycle Implications." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 15, 2008) With ME Gallagher, WC Hockaday, CA Masiello, CP McSwiney, GP Robertson, and JA Baldock.

"Interlaboratory Data on Elemental and Isotopic Carbon in the Carbonaceous Particle Reference Material, NIST SRM 1649a." Gordon Research Conference on Organic Geochemistry, Plymouth, New Hampshire. (2000) With L.A. Currie, B.A. Benner, Jr., R. Cary, E.R.M. Druffel, T.I. Eglinton, P.C. Hartmann, J.D. Kessler, D.B. Klinedinst, G.A. Klouda, J.V. Marolf, A. Pearson, J.G. Quinn, C.M. Reddy, J.F. Slater, and S.A. Wise.

"Effects of mineralogy on the storage rates of organic carbon classes across a soil chronosequence." 17th International Radiocarbon Conference, Cambridge, MA. (1999) With E.R.M. Druffel, and S. Griffin.

"Black carbon in ocean sediments and a small river." Dissertation Symposium in Chemical Oceanography (DISCO XV) NSF/ONR/NOAA, Honolulu, Hawaii. (May 1999)

"Reference materials for organic geochemical studies of black carbon." 20th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, Nancy, France. (10-14 Sept. 2001) With Schmidt M.W.I., Ball W.P., Currie, L.A., Czimczik C.I., Gelinas Y., Glaser B., Kuhlbusch T.A.J., Prentice K.M., Skjemstad J.O., Smith D.M.

"The use of radiocarbon to examine turnover under N fertilization in a major microbial group." Spring AGU, . (2001) With Treseder, K.K., Lansing, J., and M.F. Allen.

"Development of standards for organic geochemical studies of black carbon." Gordon Research Conference on Organic Geochemistry, Plymouth, New Hampshire. (2000) With M.W.I. Schmidt, W.P. Ball, L.A. Currie, J.O. Skjemstad, D.M. Smith.

"Black carbon 14C in the Santa Monica basin: riverine delivery and sedimentary accumulation." Ninth Annual Goldschmidt Conference, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. (1999) With E.R.M. Druffel, and S. Griffin.

F.W. Zeng and C.A. Masiello

"Tracking the carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio of the terrestrial biosphere." North American Carbon Program, Colorado Springs, CO. (Jan 24-27, 2007) With W.C. Hockaday, M.E. Gallagher, J.T. Randerson, O.A. Chadwick, J.A. Baldock, R.J. Smernik.

"Effect of urbanization on river CO2 emissions." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 12-17, 2007) With F. Zeng, Masiello, C.A..

"The Effects of Decomposition on the Oxidative Ratio and Carbon Oxidation State of Organic Matter." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 10-15) With M.E. Gallagher, N. Clark, J.T. Randerson, and G.P. Robertson.

"Analysis of changes in biochemical composition under free-air CO2 enrichment by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance: Leaf litter, roots, and soils from Oak Ridge." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 12-17, 2007) With Hockaday, W.C., Masiello, C.A., Baldock, J.A., Iverson, C.M., Norby, R.J.

"Climate drivers of soil carbon storage across the west coast of California." 2nd International Conference on Mechanisms of Organic Matter Stabilization and Destabilization in Soils, Asilomar, California. (October 9-13) With PJ Reimer, OA Chadwick, JW Harden, JS Southon, MS Torn.

"Progress in the measurement of organic carbon oxidation state (Cox) via 13C NMR." 3rd European Symposium on NMR Spectroscopy in Soil, Geo, and Environmental Sciences, Freising, Germany. With W.C. Hockaday, J.A. Baldock, R.J. Smernik, O.A. Chadwick, J.T. Randerson, J.W. Harden.

"Accuracy and precision in measurements of biomass oxidative ratio and carbon oxidation state." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 12-17, 2007) With Gallagher, M.E., Masiello, C.A., Randerson, J.T., Chadwick, O.A., Robertson, G.P.

"Natural variation in the carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio of a deciduous forest." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 12-17, 2007) With Masiello, C.A., Calligan, L.J., Gallagher, M.E., Hockaday, W.C., Robertson, G.P.

"Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-enriched Biochars." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 15, 2008) With Keller, M.L.; Masiello, C.A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J.A.; Capareda, S.

"Resolving the Refractory-Labile Black Carbon Paradox: BC dynamics in soils." American Geophysical Union, San Francisco. (Dec 10-15) With Claudia Czimczik.

"Biogeochemistry of charcoal in the environment: carbon cycle roles and carbon sequestration options." Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ. (Oct 22, 2008)

"Biogeochemistry of charcoal in the environment: carbon cycle roles and carbon sequestration options." TAMU, College Station, TX. (October 2008)

Awards

Hammill Innovation Grant, Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University. (2006).

Professional Experience

UC Santa Barbara, Geography, postdoctoral researcher. (2002 - 2004). (Santa Barbara, California)

American Association of University Women, , American Fellow. (2002 - 2004). (, )

California Institute of Technology, Geology and Planetary Sciences, visitor. (2001 - 2004). (Pasadena, California)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, postdoctoral researcher. (1999 - 2002). (Livermore, California)